| | |

TOOTH 12: Exploring Maxillary Premolar “Introduction & Anatomy”

Tooth 12 is a permanent first premolar in the upper left quadrant that normally erupts between the ages of six and seven. The Universal Tooth Numbering System allocates a number to all teeth. According to the Universal Tooth Numbering System, tooth number 12 is the maxillary first premolar, or first bicuspid. The first premolar is found next to the canine on either side of the jaw. The three premolars are located in the upper jaws, away from the midline of the face, and are called maxillary. The first premolar, while three are located in the lower jaw, is called the mandibular first premolar.

The upper left premolar is tooth 12, and premolars are only present in the permanent dentition around 10 to 11 years of age. Adult premolar roots take three years to fully calcify. The main function of the premolar is the same as that of the canines with respect to tearing (basic principal during mastication, also called buccal and lingual). There are two bicuspid and two maxillary cusps first, while the buccal cusps bear a sharp resemblance to prehensile teeth, which are present in carnivorous animals.

It is also called the king of fractures because it has a long buccal root and a narrow canal, and it is prone to fracture during exodontia. The root completion period is 12 to 13 years. While eruptions last 10 to 11 years for permanent teeth, the root length is 14 mm. The first premolar develops four lobes (mesial, distal, buccal, and lingual). For this reason, bicuspid signifies two cusps. Use d to describe premolars. In the last teeth, the lingual lobe comes from the cingulum of the canines and incisors.

All Four lobes in Premolars

Four lobes premolar

Buccal Feature

The buccal root is a pentagonal-shaped premolar and canine. The mesial margin joins the mesio-occlusal slope to make the mesio-occlusal angle. The Countour of the mesial is concave from the contact area to the cervical line, and the mesial slope of the buccal cusps is larger than the distal slope, which is on the opposite side of the canine. Mesio-buccal and distobuccal development depressions on each side of the buccal ridge

Lingual Feature

Lingual cusps are smaller than buccal cusps. is smooth from the area of the cervical to the cusp tip. Cusps tip with mesial and distal slope meet at an angle of 90 degrees. A small portion of buccal cusps is seen from these aspects. It is very convex in all directions. There is no lingual ridge; the mesial and distal outlines are convex and shorter than the outline of the buccal surface. Lingual cusps are not sharp.

Mesial Feature

Buccal and lingual cusps are visible at the mesial and distal aspects. Mesial development depression is present at the middle of the mesial surface, which continues to the cervical line. The mesail surface shape is trapezoidal. The occlusal margin is concave and made up of a mesial marginal ridge.

Distal Feature

There is no groove or developmental depression in the groove. All sides have a convex contact area that is present near the junction of the occlusal and middle third. The distal is similar to the mesial aspect; the only exception is that the marginal ridge is present at a more cervical level. The trait that differentiates the maxillary first from the second is that it is only the premolar that has a mesial cusp ridge larger than the distal ridge.

The canal morphology of maxillary first premolar teeth has been reported with varying prevalence. The evidence is that the anatomy of teeth tends to have racial variation.

Tooth 12 Root Canal Importance

Tooth 12 root canal maxillary first premolar is bi-rooted but with occasional presentation. It is a transitional tooth between the molars and incisors. It usually has two root canals, and very rarely, the third canal is present. In the case of endodontic treatment of a tooth, it is very difficult to access or identify the root canals. First, the premolar has variable canal root morphology with separated canals and two foramina. The previous study showed that 60% of teeth have three canals.

In a pre-operative radiograph, visualization of the third canal is often difficult. Tooth 12 root canal opening in the determination of the outline of the cavity. Root canal configuration resembles three canal molars. It is important to identify the cleanliness and shape of roots for successful root canal treatment. In the past, dentists treated this by presuming they had just two root canals. And now, if the dentist fails to recognize its presence, it leaves the root canal untreated. It is very important for all dentists or clinicians to locate and treat the root canal properly.

Tooth 12 Extraction If Infected or Decaying

A tooth extraction is a dental procedure; the implantation of this procedure occurs when the tooth is damaged or has a disease. Tooth extraction is a common dental procedure, but sometimes more than one tooth may need to be removed from the socket.

The procedure of tooth extraction for multiple teeth is more difficult than a single tooth extraction. You can easily live without one or two teeth, but losing several of them at once requires the jawbone. The natural teeth are comfortable, but due to some situations, dentists consider permanent tooth extraction. The dentists used techniques to resolve an issue. There are common reasons to extract the teeth. Including some reasoning decay, crack, infection, lack of support, and misalignment.

tooth number 12 decay

Indications for Extraction

  • Dental  caries.
  • Orthodontic Reasons.
  • Teeth with a serious infection.
  • Teeth in the line of the jaw fracture. 
  • Unrestorable fracture with pathology

Factors Predict the Difficulty of Extraction

  • Thickness of Buccal Plate
  • Limited access to the area of extraction.
  • Increased age of patient
  • The history of past root surgical

General principles and techniques used for evaluation and treatment Surgical extraction is defined as the extreaction of a tooth that requires the elevation of soft tissue or sectioning of tissue. About 10% of the forceps extraction will be completed and will require some surgical extraction. Surgical extraction is not only for extreme situations.

When a surgical procedure is used, it is more conservative and causes less mobility than a forceps extraction. Dentists perform surgical extractions after understanding the anatomical structure. There are a few principles that should be followed.

  •  Preoperative evaluation
  •  The development of soft tissue
  •  An adequate path for removal

And the use of controlled force to decrease the risk of root or bone fracture

  • Preoperative Evalution: Through a review of the patient’s medical history, social history, medication, and allergies, which are important prior to surgery,
  • Condition of the tooth: The presence of extensive caries or large restorations weakens teeth. The presence of extensive caries makes adapting to breaks in forceps difficult. It caries on the buccal or lingual site.

Techniques for Surgical Extraction

A surgical extraction is straightforward. When an adequate flap reflected the need for bone removal when bone removal was indicated, a portion of the buccal area was grasped with forceps. Then a tooth was removed along with a small portion of buccal bone. After extraction, the surgical site should be inspected.

All sharp edges should be smooth and have bony spicules removed. The instrument of rongeur is used to smooth sharp-edged saline used to remove debris at the site of surgery. If debris is not removed, then it will delay the healing process or may cause infection. A complete detail and outcome of surgical technique on a general level can be read on this particular research paper.

Where is Tooth 12 located? Based on Universal Tooth Numbering

Tooth 12 is present on the left side of the upper quadrant. It is present in the upper jaw, which is another name for the upper left quadrant or second quadrant. The maxillary first premolar is present in the upper left quadrant, or upper jaw, and the tooth 12 13 14 are found in the same quadrant. The tooth 12 and 13 are both premolars, but the tooth 12 is the first premolar or first bicuspid, and the tooth 12 is the second premolar or second bicuspid.

tooth 12 location

The first premolar is located before the second premolar, which means that they are away from the middle of the face. The fourth permanent tooth is actually the maxillary first premolar, which lies in the midline maxillary arch. You can also check the location and extraction cost about tooth 15 on our website.

Tooth 12 Implant Cost of Bridge in Different locations

A dental bridge is an artificial tooth that is used to fill the gap between the missing teeth. The artificial bridge is attached to the natural teeth. The dental bridges are fixed to the missing teeth and fill the gap. There are different types of bridges, such as traditional bridges,cantilever bridges,Maryland bridges, and implant-supported bridges.

There are the following requirements for a dental bridge:

  • Number of teeth missing: The dental bridge takes place and is used for four missing teeth. If you have a reconstruction of a full mouth, you will need to consider another option for an implementation bridge. 
  • Condition of remaining teeth: The condition of the remaining teeth is more important because the reason is to support the dental bridge.
  • Overall state of dental health: Your dental health is good, and you qualify for a dental procedure. if you have gum disease and a weak or deteriorated jawbone. You are not a good candidate for a dental bridge procedure.
  • Oral hygiene habits: Good oral hygiene plays a role for people with dental bridges. The bacteria build up and create an infection.